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Basic Citation Formats

Basic citation formats for footnotes/endnotes of English-language texts to be published in Odrodzenie i Reformacja w Polsce


One author

  1. Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (Boston, 2000), pp. 64–65.
  2. Gladwell, Tipping Point, p. 71.

Two or more authors

  1. P. Morey, A. Yaqin, Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11 (Cambridge, MA, 2011), p. 52.
  2. Morey, Yaqin, Framing Muslims, pp. 60–61.

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by “et al.” (“and others”):

  1. J.M. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics after Adorno (Berkeley, 2010), p. 276.
  2. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics, p. 18.

Editor or translator instead of author

  1. R. Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago, 1951), pp. 91–92.
  2. Lattimore, Iliad, p. 24.

Editor or translator in addition to author

  1. J. Austen, Persuasion: An Annotated Edition, ed. R. Morrison (Cambridge, MA, 2011), pp. 311–312.
  2. Austen, Persuasion, p. 315.

Chapter or other part of a book

  1. Á. Ramírez, “Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images,” in: Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, ed. F. Shirazi (Austin, 2010), p. 231.
  2. Ramírez, “Muslim Women,” pp. 239–240.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

  1. W. Cronon, foreword to: The Republic of Nature, by M. Fiege (Seattle, 2012), p. ix.
  2. Cronon, foreword, pp. x–xi.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

  1. I. Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration (New York, 2010), pp. 183–184, Kindle. 
  2. Ph.B. Kurland, R. Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, accessed October 15, 2011,
  3. J.P. Quinlan, The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It (New York, 2010), p. 211, accessed December 8, 2012, ProQuest Ebrary.
  4. Wilkerson, Warmth of Other Suns, p. 401.
  5. Kurland, Lerner, Founders’ Constitution.
  6. Quinlan, Last Economic Superpower, p. 88.

Journal article

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

Article in a print journal

  1. A. Bogren, “Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate,” Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011), p. 156.
  2. Bogren, “Gender and Alcohol,” p. 157.

Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead.

  1. C. Brown, “Consequentialize This,” Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011), p. 752, accessed December 1, 2012,
  2. A. Kurylo, “Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum,” China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012), p. 16, accessed March 9, 2013, Academic OneFile.
  3. Brown, “Consequentialize This,” p. 761.
  4. Kurylo, “Linsanity,” pp. 18–19.

Magazine article

  1. J. Lepore, “Dickens in Eden,” New Yorker, August 29, 2011, p. 52.
  2. Lepore, “Dickens in Eden,” pp. 54–55.

Book review

  1. J. Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, ed. Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson, American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011), p. 754.
  2. Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, p. 752.

Thesis or dissertation

  1. D.S. Levin, “Let’s Talk about Sex… Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools” (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010), pp. 101–102.
  2. Levin, “Let’s Talk about Sex,” p. 98.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

  1. R. Adelman, “‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition” (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009).
  2. Adelman, “Such Stuff as Dreams.”


A more formal citation may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

  1. “Privacy Policy,” Google Policies & Principles, last modified July 27, 2012, accessed January 3, 2013,
  2. Google, “Privacy Policy.”

Blog entry or comment

The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

  1. G. Becker, “Is Capitalism in Crisis?,” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012, accessed February 16, 2012,
  2. Becker, “Is Capitalism in Crisis?”

How to cite archival materials:

Note: As with any other citation, ensure you are providing sufficient information for any other researcher to be able to easily locate your sources. 

Abbreviations are entirely appropriate, but all acronyms should be written out in full at the first occurrence, followed by the acronym in parenthesis.

A brief citation should contain the following information:

  1. Name of the institution responsible for the custody of the records or catalogues
  2. Full catalogue reference: the alphanumeric code used to identify, describe and order the record
  3. Internal identifier: details of the folio, page, docket, membrane or other number within the piece (the container box, volume, folio, bundle, roll and so on). 
  4. In some cases you may need to include the extended reference, that is the full series title, which may provide useful context information.

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